Hard fork Optimistic Rollup, analysis of Layer 2 DAO basic protocol Metis

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What kind of chemical reaction will occur when combining DAO and Layer 2?

Written by: Kevin, co-founder of MetisDAO

Discord temporarily bans WallStreetBets discussion group and Robinhood offline game station farce tells us clearly that the “right” of the centralized platform may be far greater than you think, and the entire Internet world and the financial world may be in urgent need To carry out a “decentralized” reform, at least centralized Internet companies and financial institutions should not hold everyone’s throats.

The emergence of smart contracts and DAOs provides a good direction for exploring decentralization. Relying on smart contracts, DeFi is surging and re-architects finance in a decentralized way, while DAO takes it a step further, making direct democracy possible and making governance truly decentralized for the first time.

However, at present, most people’s understanding of DAO is still very shallow. Many people think that DAO is an autonomous community, and then everyone can achieve governance through voting on the chain. In fact, the possibility of DAO is far more complicated than voting.

To some extent, Bitcoin is actually the first DAO organization in human history. Miners formed DAO in a decentralized mode, but not for voting, but for issuing Bitcoin through self-made rules such as bookkeeping rewards. , And to ensure that the Bitcoin account is true and effective, that is, DAO exists to complete value generation activities (collaboration).

However, Internet applications such as WiKi, chat rooms, and short videos are unable to support existing DAOs, public chains and smart contracts due to their complex business logic, which indicates that the entire blockchain industry has a lack of technical infrastructure.

Vitalik made similar remarks

Various Layer 2 solutions (Lightning Network, Rollups, etc.) have been discussed in the industry for many years. Starting in 2020, we have seen the development and application of rollup technology begin to land, but currently rollups are mainly used to solve payment problems and usage scenarios Can not be effectively expanded.

What kind of chemical reaction will happen when DAO and Layer2, the two hot spots that the industry has given high hopes, are put together? Maybe Metis is revealing the answer to this question.

Comprehensive understanding of Metis

Metis has built a new set of second-layer protocols based on the main chain of the public chain, which allows Web2 projects and communities to easily build their DAC (decentralized company, a kind of DAO) on the blockchain. , Quickly launch DApps (decentralized applications), and use blockchain-based tools to manage the collaboration between the community and the data computing layer.

The core of the Metis two-layer agreement is the game mechanism based on the Optimistic Rollup (OR) idea and the pledge withdrawal of the OR side chain, that is, Optimistic Governance. To match this game mechanism, Metis hard-forked Optimistic Rollup and built the Metis Virtual Machine (MVM) to manage business and data layers and complex operations through the ComCo management framework deployed on the side chain.

Optimistic governance is used to solve the problem of how to establish trust and determine the collaborative relationship between cooperative parties that lack a trust foundation in the decentralized scenario of DApps, and to ensure that the calculation process and results of business logic in DApps are true and credible. In order to build the foundation of trust, before determining the cooperative relationship, the cooperative parties who lack trust need to pledge the deposit into the Metis agreement as a promise of performance. After the pledge is completed, the cooperative relationship between the parties involved is confirmed. In the process of collaborative execution, Metis will assume that all parties are honest and keep their promises (this is true in most cases). Therefore, if no collaborating party raises objections, the margin will be challenged for a period of time when the collaborative transaction is completed. Automatic return after the end of the period. In this case, there is no need for governance intervention, and the entire process can ensure the highest efficiency. However, if a malicious party appears (for example, a collaborating party fails to submit calculation results or deliverables on time and quality), the pledged deposit will be frozen by the agreement, and the arbitration and punishment system will be activated for governance to protect compliance The interests of the owner.

Similarly, in the data operation layer of DApps, since microservices and operations occur on the side chain, in order to prevent the integrator (Aggregator) from packaging or replacing the wrong data when the data is packaged and synchronized to the main chain. The operation also requires a pledge deposit, and these data will not be immediately confirmed on the main chain. The validators on the main chain will repeat the calculation results. If there is a problem with the packaged data, these validators will pledge the deposit. Then, a challenge is initiated on the main chain within a certain period of time, and the smart contract on the main chain is triggered to initiate an arbitration game. The arbitration contract will execute the calculation result again and compare the answers of the verifier and the packager to provide the correct answer The party that gets the commission, the security deposit of the evil party will be confiscated.

As it involves business and data governance, management, and complex logical operations in DApps, it is difficult to achieve only through the Layer1 main chain and smart contracts (the gas cost, efficiency, and lack of functionality mentioned above), Metis developed ComCo management framework, through the microservice tools deployed by ComCo on the side chain to realize the complex calculation and management of the business and data layers in DApps. This design greatly breaks through the performance, function, and cost limitations of Layer 1 and smart contracts. It can not only reduce gas costs by collectively submitting transaction operations, but also achieve more by adding various microservices on the side chain. Function.

Therefore Metis provides a new set of high scalability, high performance, and low cost Layer 2 protocol. Developers can use the Metis open source microservice software framework to quickly implement decentralized applications. They can check some existing services, modules and UI to achieve “one-click DApp”, and they can also call various Metis In-depth development of interfaces and protocols to achieve DApps such as decentralized wikis, chat rooms, open source communities, event organizations, task distribution platforms, community games, and Defi.

Since these DApps are built on the organizational framework of DAC, community members can use their power to participate in the value generation activities of the project under a unified management rule, contribute and obtain token incentives.

Explore the “new generation” DAO basic agreement

Metis formed the earliest framework of the second-tier protocol in 2019 and proposed the concept of DAC-decentralized company. Each DApp is a decentralized company DAC composed of community members and stakeholders, who carry out distributed cross-domain collaboration in order to complete a specific mission. DAC is a subset of DAO. DAC not only cares about governance, but also cares more about management. The latter is what other DAO projects lack at present. In fact, we have seen that most DAOs are only responsible for proposals and Voting, these functions can be realized through some modules in the project, in fact, there is no need to set up a separate DAO to do this.

Metis CEO Elena Sinelnikova feels a lot about this issue. She is also the co-founder of CryptoChicks (the other co-founder of the project is Vitalik’s mother Natalia Ameline), leading the world’s largest (headquartered in Canada, with members in 56 countries around the world) female blockchain community. Elena has been engaged in community building work and holds several global Hackathon and related training events every year, so she has been looking for a mechanism that can solve the problem of effective collaboration in a decentralized environment that lacks trust. She believes that DAO provides good ideas, but there is still a big gap in the management of decentralized collaboration.

Therefore, the three partners of Metis focused on how to construct an agreement to allow DApps to establish trust, determine collaboration relationships, and verify the results of calculations on the new organizational structure, management mechanism, and software framework.

At the end of 2020, the MVP testnet of Metis was launched. The CTO and co-founder of CasperLabs Medha Parlikar, in particular, recognized the importance of Metis to the main chain of Layer1 such as Ethereum, Casper and Polkadot. She believes that Metis is an enabler (enabler). Let Web2.0 developers quickly build decentralized DApps, and implement decentralized business governance and management under the structure of DAC. Therefore, the highly scalable Metis Layer 2 protocol can complement the high-performance Layer 1 main chain including the Casper network, and jointly support more user cases on the chain. Medha quickly agreed to serve as the chief consultant of Metis. At the same time, Casper and Metis also launched a joint laboratory-TranspilerLab.DAC (Compiler Lab, which is also a DAC built on Metis) to jointly carry out the research and development of the new architecture and the developer community Construction and project incubation.

How to use Metis

The MVP version currently online by Metis is a community-oriented demonstration version that allows the community to create their decentralized company DAC on the blockchain in three simple steps.

Hard fork Optimistic Rollup, analysis of Layer 2 DAO basic protocol MetisCreate DAC in 3 steps

At present, these communities can operate and maintain WiKi, hackathon and other businesses and activities through task management and knowledge management.

Hard fork Optimistic Rollup, analysis of Layer 2 DAO basic protocol MetisTask management

Hard fork Optimistic Rollup, analysis of Layer 2 DAO basic protocol MetisKnowledge management

Metis has been using this set of agreements and rules to manage the Metis project (eating your own dog food). We can track the development trajectory of the Metis project since 2018, the tasks, contributions and deliverables of the various participants in the community, etc. .

Hard fork Optimistic Rollup, analysis of Layer 2 DAO basic protocol MetisTraceable trajectory

Hard fork Optimistic Rollup, analysis of Layer 2 DAO basic protocol MetisExample of a task and deliverable

Product roadmap

The Metis team defined the main phases of the project with a series of well-known historical civilization development process terms. At present, Metis has completed preparations for the Stone Age and has launched the MVP version on the testnet. However, since the mainnet has not yet been launched, only simple Internet applications are currently supported. Further improvements in performance and functions require the gradual development of the Bronze Age mainnet and the era of great navigation to support more commercial applications.

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