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Although Rollup is good, exponential expansion solutions such as Plasma can better carry Reddit points and other systems with independent scenarios and a huge number of users.
Written by: D1 Ventures
D1 is a venture capital institution focusing on the field of native blockchain. By providing global market insights, building cross-market liquidity, providing strategic consulting and Meme communication strategies, it supports the future development of the crypto economy. Key investment projects include NEAR, Polkadot, Ethereum, Handshake and ecological native scene applications, etc.
The expansion plan required for Reddit points is very different from the expansion needs of DeFi
Reddit plans to issue Community points ERC20 format on the Ethernet Square, to the open call for community expansion program (The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off ), in order to solve practical problems of high transfer costs and network throughput. Reddit requires expansion plan in theory can support millions of users (a clear path to supporting hundreds of millions of users), Demo should be able to carry thousands of pen transfers every day, subscribe to generate points, distribution and destruction simple transfer or contract carried out.
The scenario of Reddit community points, which is more closely connected with Internet Web 2.0 users, is different from the demand and orientation of DeFi applications for expansion solutions:
- Both subscribers not on the same order of magnitude. The number of users of Internet applications can be tens of thousands or hundreds of millions, and the total number of active users of all DeFi applications is still around 10,000. To accommodate such users body mass, expansion scheme the block chain ring portion must abandon the current Ethernet Layer 1 square to the center level and the degree of security;
- User experience is different from habits. Internet users are not accustomed to paying gas fees when operating applications and waiting for a few minutes to get confirmation. DApps in services and out-of-circle scenarios must compromise with users. In most cases, Gas fee can only be paid by the operator;
- No Internet applications can be combined requirements. Mature Internet applications encapsulate services to users, and users can only call them without changing themselves. The boundaries of different Internet applications are clear and the ecology is relatively independent.
DeFi expansion driven by internal development block chain in the world, it is more emphasis on native spiritual block chain, namely security, decentralized, without a permit, on the basis of performance and steadily promote the rise; and the Reddit community integration in class more like a circle to try out ahead of the distance, on the various dimensions of the block chain system put forward the final requirements.
Understand linear expansion and exponential expansion
Rollup is the most discussed Ethernet Square community expansion program, this program provides now, it seems more than enough throughput (Throughput) (~ 3000TPS), while providing the best outside the chain of assets compared to other security expansion program.
Ideally, Rollup has 100 times the processing power of the current Ethernet Layer Square 1, but can not be one step closer, we call linear expansion. The upper limit of this processing capacity still comes from the Gas limit of Layer 1. Rollup be written after all transactions Compression Layer 1 Layer 2 block is a single transaction by reducing the volume occupied by Gas, the increased number of transactions method blocks can be accommodated, and the area is simply increased, Block Gas limit is a solution with two sides.
When insufficient Square Ethernet capacity, linear expansion of the community has been the most willing to accept the expansion program (blocks Gas limit increasing). Linear expansion kept alleviate the problem of shortage of capacity, while continuing to erode the degree of decentralization Ethernet Square, it is never the ultimate solution but more like stage painkillers, has a limited effect and obvious but growing side effect.
However, the processing power provided by linear expansion is stretched when Ethereum tries to support out-of-circle applications. We make basic calculations based on Reddit’s requirements for the expansion plan Demo. Specifically, we simplified all interactions into ordinary transfers, and spread these requirements evenly over 5 days. So Demo were asked to handle 60,000 transactions a day, yet this scale can be Rollup (3000 TPS) to digest, but when put into real use Demo stage, that user will scale far greater than 100,000.
When the user scale reaches 100 million, the number of transactions that need to be processed per day will reach 60 million . Under ideal circumstances, it still takes up about 1/4 of Ethereum’s processing power throughout the day, and this is only the cost of supporting Reddit . Ethereum must have exponential scalability in order to carry more practical application scenarios in the future.
Index level of scalability, availability sacrifice from the data chain, we must not allow the expansion program will be outside the chain of all transactions over the backbone. For example, Plasma-based scheme only the side chain of the block Merkle Root recorded over the main chain, a side chain such that all transactions to share security main chain, and can be used as a feature value Merkle Root unlimited transactions of. Increase the number of transactions on the side chain and does not cause side-chain information recorded in the main chain increases, in theory, this expansion program brings increased processing power is no upper limit, we call exponential expansion.
As compensation for the availability of data on the chain, what we still need to do is to store all off-chain specific transaction records in a storage space that can be indexed by a main chain node. The development of decentralized storage networks is driving this change. .
Among the 22 solutions collected in this Reddit community points expansion program, most have exponential scalability. The horizontal comparison of these side chain solutions can start from two directions:
- Functionality of side chain . For example, for EVM ecosystem compatibility (EVM ecosystem compatibility), the Reddit community points system needs to implement functions other than ERC20 transfers, there are still operations that require contract execution such as coin minting and destruction; sidechain decentralized governance, further expansion potential, side chain Interoperability between chains, etc.
- Square Ethernet backbone with interoperability (Interoperability with Ethereum). In short, it is the safety, cost and delay of the cross-chain bridge.
In the comparison of the above two technical directions, we believe that Matic and NEAR provide better solutions.
Matic uses Plasma ‘s structure to share security with Ethereum. It periodically writes the Merkle Root of the nearest block to the main chain. Wherein the side chain from UTXO Matic to Acount model, so that it may be better to run the EVM, the operation can be better support contract and other possible future Reddit predetermined application logic is unique in the art.
NEAR is an independent public chain. Usually we will not compare it horizontally with side chain projects such as xDai Chain. However, in specific application scenarios, NEAR has actually achieved full coverage of side chain functions. Functional aspects, NEAR fully compatible EVM, and has a relatively xDai more complete side chain such as scouring for people to verify the mechanism.
On the design of the bridge Ethernet adapter Square, NEAR just released Near-ETH Rainbow Bridge (ETH-NEAR Rainbow Bridge) as the center of go between the two strands of the transfer bridge.
This scheme is different from the multi-signature custody scheme that we are familiar with. It does not custody assets to institutions trusted by several communities (in fact, trust in cross-chain asset custodians limits the total amount of cross-chain assets) chain were deployed on the other strand of light client (light clients) in the form of intelligent contracts to verify that another transaction in the chain.
Since the locking and issuance of assets at both ends of the bridge is controlled by smart contracts, anyone can deploy a cross-chain bridge on the two chains. NEAR is designing a reasonable fee mechanism to subsidize the high operating costs of smart contracts.
In addition, OMG Network has developed a similar community integration Metamask the Chrome extension, allows users to easily transfer or receive rewards, offers the best ease of use in the browser in the case of meeting the basic technical indicators.
Spacefold Demo: spacefold.io
Connext, a state channel solution provider, was unable to support smart contracts in Layer 2 and provide a clear global ledger , and instead developed Spacefold to provide solutions for ERC20 transfers between Layer 2 side chains that support EVM. This design assumes channel state between different side chains, breaking the circuit of the fierce competition, so that different side chains may be the same as different fragments is accommodated into a wider network.
Overview of the Ethereum expansion blueprint
Since the security of data under different scenarios require different, we think inevitably move towards Ethernet networks are hierarchical Square. Layer 1 must go into the primary purpose of the center, to ensure the security of the entire network infrastructure assets account.
Excessive redundancy will inevitably raise the cost of using Layer 1, and squeeze services with different security requirements onto several side chains with different expansion schemes. DeFi applications may prefer to have a higher cost due to the many assets involved. Rollup large side chain, and integrating these scenes Reddit independently, a huge amount of users prefer the Plasma system and other programs.
Generally speaking, the higher the upper limit of the side chain’s capacity, the worse its security, the lower the transaction cost, and the closer it is to the current Internet application orientation. Cross-chain can be achieved between side chains, but settlement still needs to be completed in Layer 1.
Meanwhile, Layer 1 will be among the pieces as a side chain liquidation of assets to achieve interoperability cornerstone of. Such a network structure is actually the Boca “relay chain + parallel chain” system is very similar, but the specific side chain and backbone anchoring how to solve practical problems of how assets across the chain so completely handed over to the community. In the Darwinian perspective, the community will eventually choose the best program in the competition.
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