The deposit target has been exceeded and the route has been adjusted significantly. What is the focus of the recent ETH2.0?

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We were still worried that the deposit goal of ETH2.0 could not be reached before December 1. Unexpectedly, on November 23, the pledge amount in the deposit contract increased by 90%. As of November 26, Beijing time, the amount of ETH pledged in the deposit contract address has reached 740,000 ETH, far exceeding the minimum threshold of 524,288 ETH.

The official is trying to accelerate the process of ETH2.0

Since then, the official has made a major update to the ETH2.0 roadmap. In the latest AMM event, the ETH2.0 research team of the Ethereum Foundation gave a clearer change plan. There are three main changes:

1. Take Rollup as the center. Simplify “Phase1” to only use for sharding data (in order to use rolllups) to make it easier to implement.

2. Simplify the merger. The transaction of eth1 may be executed directly on the beacon chain, rather than in shards; this means that the merge plan will be greatly simplified, and the merge of ETH1.0 and ETH2.0 may be earlier than the deployment of shards.

3. Parallel phase. That is to say, the light client support, data sharding (also known as “phase 1”) and merging mentioned earlier will all be parallel at the same time . No matter what stage the other parts are in, each part can be realized when it is “ready”. .

存款目标超额达成、路线重大调整,近期的ETH2.0重点关注什么?

Phase 2 is temporarily ignored because the goal may be reached early

During these changes, we noticed that Phase2, which is more important in ETH2.0, has been temporarily frozen. Why?

Originally, Phase2’s goal was high TPS, but now we can directly use Phase1+Rollup to achieve higher TPS performance , and achieve 100,000 TPS faster. The general principle of all these changes is to promote the arrival of ETH2.0 faster.

Here we can understand that Rollup is a computational fragmentation scheme. The reason for this change can be attributed to the preliminary results of the Lay2 expansion plan. The official solution was able to solve the Ethereum expansion problem, simplify the mileage steps, and bring users a better operating experience, and realize ETH2.0 as soon as possible. .

Looking back at the original idea, stages 0, 1, and 2 are all improving the functions and performance of Ethereum with different solutions. In general, a team of validators supporting Pos consensus is formed through pledge, and then shards are deployed to perform calculations on the shards. Finally, ETH1.0 and ETH2.0 are merged, and then some The components of the operating environment are perfect.

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It is not difficult to understand that the degree of completion of the previous step has a great impact on the next step. Maybe there is a small difference in the process or the problem is not solved, then the next step is difficult to start. Therefore, according to this rhythm, procrastination is easy to occur. The most serious thing is that Ethereum has repeatedly bounced tickets for a long time and has not been able to start for a long time. If this happens, the patience and confidence of firm supporters will be exhausted, which is very detrimental to the ecological construction of Ethereum.

So, what role is the Rollup plan that V God has always placed high hopes on? We can start with Rollup itself. The meaning of the word Rollup itself is curling and rolling. According to the definition when the concept was proposed, Rollup is to aggregate transactions. Only one transaction on the chain can be used to verify multiple other transactions. This transaction can ensure The stability of the Ethereum blockchain can also allow the transaction throughput of the network to increase significantly.

Those Layer 2 solutions for ETH expansion

In fact, Rollup is the same as other Layer 2 technologies. The purpose of its birth is to allow the weak Ethereum performance to be usable or even reusable. As the mainstream of the current track, Rollup is not an emerging technology. It already existed two years ago, and technologies such as older Plasma and state channels have faded out of the mainstream. Why does Rollup capture the attention of cutting-edge research fields?

A more comprehensive opinion is that the Rollup solution provides the same level of data availability and security as Ethereum Lay1. It packs a large amount of transaction data originally scattered in the block into an “aggregated” transaction and publishes it on the chain. This operation ensures that a large number of transactions are processed in a very short time, and the most important thing is to solve the problem of data availability. The problem, all transaction data is on the Ethereum chain.

Compared with the original route Phase1 sharding solution, this integration can be directly understood as an internal integration of sharding technology, that is, the transaction needs to be placed on different shard chains for synchronous processing, and now it can be directly aggregated and processed by Rollup. The former can be regarded as state sharding, and the latter is an embedded sharding. More vividly, we can compare Rollup to a magician, which uses superb magic techniques to give a large number of data and transactions to the synchronous processing The “magic” speed shows the same expansion speed as the fragmented computing.

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Secondly, in order to ensure the security of the entire transaction process the same as Lay1, various Rollup schemes have designed different mechanisms. ZK-Rollup zero-knowledge proof zk-SNARKs cryptography technology ensures security, while Optimistic Rollup inherits Plasma’s penalty mechanism , To ensure that the node will pay a great price if it does evil. For this understanding of security, V God once explained, “We can further increase the scale of asset transfer transactions on Ethereum without using the “liveness assumption” introduced in the Lay2 technology, but only using ZK- SNARKs verify a large number of transactions.” This shows that the Roll system is not only a Lay2 expansion plan, but also a great degree of security.

Collection of scalability and security, taking into account the basic block chain Rollup impossible triangle in which the corners, but can not be used for the fragmentation Rollup achieve transparency issue, V God also gave a very positive answer, “to One benefit of the Rollup-centric roadmap is that it opens up experimental space for Rollup that supports synchronous communication across shards (even without sharding, only a single-threaded super sequencer handles everything). You can have data in one rollup A synchronization domain of hundreds or even thousands of TPS (matching ethereum’s killer performance) will not make the entire basic layer chain so central.”

In other respects, the overall development of Rollup also shows the strong development power of the bulls. In addition to the Rollup R&D team mentioned above, many Ethereum second-tier expansion solutions are also powerful candidates for the Ethereum expansion solution, such as the Arbitrum Rollup launched by Offchain Labs, and the comprehensive solution Volition launched by the zero-knowledge proof scientist team StarkWare. Up to now, there are more than ten teams for Rollup expansion solutions, and they are still developing.

Does this indicate that Plasma is really the last one? The analysis believes that Plasma exists as a side chain outside the Ethereum network. From the early attention to the later indifference, the most important problems are two aspects. One is that data availability cannot be guaranteed because only the overall hash value of batch transactions Publish to Layer 1, instead of publishing every transaction to the underlying public chain. Second, the user experience is poor. In order to avoid malicious attacks, users need to go online regularly when designing the challenge period mechanism, otherwise they may miss out. Suffered unnecessary losses and exposed real problems greatly restricted the development of Plasma. Rollup just made up for the two shortcomings of the former, and relatively completely solved a package of problems to support the early arrival of the expansion goal of Ethereum 2.0.

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Comparison of Ethereum’s mainstream expansion plans

存款目标超额达成、路线重大调整,近期的ETH2.0重点关注什么?

In addition to technology, investment and applications have also begun to deploy Rollup

Seeing the advantages of Rollup, related fields began to line up on the Rollup circuit. According to external sources, top investment institutions are investing heavily in negotiations with the core Ethereum Lay2 expansion plan development team, a new wave of resource competition is unfolding, and the Ethereum Lay2 expansion plan team is also looking for like-minded developers to enter the game. , And looking for a rich partner for users and application agreements.

From the data point of view, we can see the magical changes brought about by the roadmap change from the pledge growth. On November 20, only 20% of the pledge progress was completed. On November 23, the pledge increased sharply, breaking through 300,000 in the evening. Pieces. On the morning of the 24th, the total amount of pledge reached 100%. This change from cautiously slow to radical surge had to trigger contact with ETH2.0, which has accelerated the arrival of route changes.

At the moment, we see that the research of ETH 2.0 is often scattered and changing at any time. In many cases, if you do not follow up and update in time, it will be out of touch with the research progress of Ethereum. It is necessary to rationally look at every technological advancement in the change. As Ethereum 2.0 shifts to Rollup-centric solutions, it means that Rollup has performed outstandingly in the Lay2 solution camp. At least from now on, it has become the core role of the ETH2.0 process, which is also a Rollup system. The Mastery of Extension Solutions has produced a high-quality answer sheet in more than two years of hard work. We can only look at the risks and opportunities in the future.