The number of validators in Ethereum 2.0 has only reached 1/8 of the expected number. Should we start phase 0 in early December?


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ETH 2.0 will start phase 0 on December 1st?

At the beginning of November, the Ethereum Foundation launched the first process of the highly anticipated Ethereum 2.0 (ETH 2.0) upgrade specification, which specifies the conditions for starting phase 0-at least 16,384 validators are required to call ETH 2.0 deposit contract, deposit at least 524,288 ETH. If the requirements are met on November 24, phase 0 can be started on December 1.

The 3-week pledge was not smooth at the beginning. During the period , something happened in the Ethereum community, mainly the 2.0 route problem. Many community members were suspicious, confused, or even confused. The progress of the pledge was not substantially progressed. .

But these are not problems. At the critical moment, we still saw Vitalik’s strong ability to carry goods -in the last two days of the pledge deadline, we saw a large amount of ETH pledged to the deposit contract of Ethereum 2.0.

On the 24th, more than 524,288 ETH pledged to the ETH 2.0 deposit contract.

Immediately afterwards, the major media liked the following:

以太坊 2.0 验证人数仅仅达到预期的1/8,12月初要不要启动第0阶段?

以太坊 2.0 验证人数仅仅达到预期的1/8,12月初要不要启动第0阶段?

This can be said to be a turning point for the entire Ethereum community . Vitalik also tweeted a low-key celebration:

以太坊 2.0 验证人数仅仅达到预期的1/8,12月初要不要启动第0阶段?

How many validators are involved in staking?

Out of curiosity, I downloaded all the transactions of the Ethereum 2.0 deposit contract, conducted some analysis, and came up with a result that some people may not want to see:

  • 1) The total number of validators participating in the pledge: 2059, of which the number of validators who only pledged the minimum threshold of 32 ETH is 1330.
  • 2) The top 100 pledged accounts for 67.15% of the total pledged amount.
  • 3) The top 34 of the pledge amount exceeds 51% of the total pledge amount. (1.6% of validators exceed 51% of the pledge amount)

Ethereum is walking along the road from decentralization to weak centralization.

If you doubt this data, I will show you the process of generating this data next.

Transaction data extraction process of ETH deposit contract

First, enter the deposit contract address of ETH2.0:

In the lower right corner of the page, there is a function to export transaction data, enter:

以太坊 2.0 验证人数仅仅达到预期的1/8,12月初要不要启动第0阶段?

Since I can only export 5,000 pieces of data at a time, I exported it multiple times, then deleted the repeated data, and finally merged all the more than 10,000 transactions into one excel form:

以太坊 2.0 验证人数仅仅达到预期的1/8,12月初要不要启动第0阶段?

Next, in the excel table, delete abnormal data, such as transactions that failed and the pledge amount is 0.01.

Ok, now we are going to use Excel’s powerful pivot function. Select the From column to the Value_IN(ETH) column , insert the pivot chart, and get the following statistical data. We will sum the pledge numbers according to different addresses.

以太坊 2.0 验证人数仅仅达到预期的1/8,12月初要不要启动第0阶段?

Each line is an address. Copy this data to another sheet tab for further analysis. We can sort by the number of pledges, and then use a simple SUM function to know:

  • 1) What is the total number of verifiers participating in the pledge?
  • 2) What percentage of the top 100 pledge amount of the total pledge amount?
  • 3) The top number of pledges exceeds 51% of the total pledge. (?% of validators exceed 51% of the pledge amount)

I even counted the number of pledges per day:

以太坊 2.0 验证人数仅仅达到预期的1/8,12月初要不要启动第0阶段?

From the figure, we can see that in the last 5 days, the pledge of ETH 2.0 ushered in a climax .

Have the basic conditions for starting phase 0 been met?

There are two numbers, many people may not know how to come:

  • At least 16384 validators participate
  • Minimum pledge of 524,288 ETH

Here I will give a brief introduction. Ethereum 2.0 uses a sharding scheme, with a total of 64 shards. For safety and decentralization, each shard has 256 validators, and then 128 validators are selected from them.

So the minimum number of verifiers is: 256 ✖ 64 = 16384;

And because each validator needs to pledge at least 32 ETH, the minimum pledge amount = 16384 ✖ 32 = 524,288 ETH.

Well, according to the statistics above, if each address is regarded as a validator, then the number of validators pledged this time is 2059, which is eight of the minimum number of validators required to start Ethereum 2.0 Phase 0 One in one, 12.5%, obviously did not meet the conditions required to start Phase 0.

However, it is very strange that almost everyone did not care about this number and thought that Ethereum 2.0 had reached the conditions for the start of phase 0 of the previous plan.

If this is the case, I can only think that the setting of this value is for the community to see, just to make everyone feel that um, this is more decentralized and much better than the 21 super nodes of EOS. In fact, no matter whether this threshold is reached or not, it must be activated.

What do the rest of the community think?

I followed the recent tweets and found that I am not alone in the data. A buddy posted a tweet as early as the 23rd, expressing concern about the excessive centralization of ETH 2.0:

This buddy said that he was curious about the ETH2 pledge contract, so he exported the data and made a pie chart. If he didn’t know it, he was surprised. He found that at that time (November 23), the former with the most pledges The 14 validators (1.3% of the 1,058 validators) represent 51.9% of the total pledge in the contract.

As for this tweet, even though somebody has it

Nothing more

Finally, although from the data point of view, the validators of Ethereum 2.0 have not reached the minimum threshold for starting stage 0, but most people outside the world believe that starting stage 0 in early December is a certainty. We don’t need to struggle.

After all, whether or not it is, why do I have no voting rights?