Analysis of PlatON 2.0 three-layer privacy computing network architecture design and challenges


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The design of the PlatON 2.0 three-layer privacy computing network is the blockchain consensus network, the privacy computing network, and the AI ​​network.

Written by: Eric

With the fermentation of many user data leakage incidents, privacy issues have gradually gained attention, but in fact, users are not disgusted with the convenience brought by big data, such as being able to find the products they want faster when shopping online, and in the information flow. The platform can constantly obtain the information it wants, or Didi can use big data to meet the needs of more passengers during peak times and maximize transportation capacity. What users are really worried about is that these private data that originally belonged to them are used uncontrollably without personal permission. It is in this context that privacy computing has entered the market’s field of vision.

If it is only used as an application similar to the Ethereum public chain, its difficulty is not too high, because the public chain has its established framework, but it is still a vertical field of public chain based on the characteristics of privacy computing like PlatON. There is a certain degree of difficulty in design and development. After PlatON released the project white paper three years ago, after three years of hard work and the ups and downs of the market, PlatON 2.0 was introduced on Twitter for the first time recently, and the design structure of its private public chain was disclosed in detail.

PlatON 2.0’s three-layer privacy computing network design

PlatON 2.0 released this time announced the design of its three-layer network. They are the blockchain consensus network, the privacy computing network and the AI ​​network.

Blockchain network

PlatON uses the PPoS consensus mechanism in the blockchain network, and a group of validator nodes complete the block production and signature. Every equity owner in the network can become a member of the network, participate in the maintenance of the entire network and obtain rewards from it. Nodes participate in the validator election by staking a certain threshold of LAT. The probability of a node becoming a validator is proportional to the equity (that is, the mortgaged LAT token), and the holder of the LAT can delegate the LAT to the node to vote. Like all other projects, the blockchain network is a decentralized ledger and a network that executes smart contracts in a trustless manner.

In addition, as a private public chain, PlatON plans to add a Zcash-like private transaction function to the transfer function of the blockchain, and even privacy the smart contract function itself and input and output at the same time, providing a zero-knowledge proof compiler and ZKVM to facilitate development Staff write privacy smart contracts. In addition to the privacy function on the chain, PlatON believes that the large data capacity of the blockchain itself is not conducive to the development of the blockchain, especially for the blockchain that uses zero-knowledge proof technology, so PlatON plans to be the blockchain Develop a stateless client that only contains block header data, that is, a light client, and further hope that the blockchain will eventually be built into a stateless blockchain similar to Mina, and data such as transactions and contracts will be stored in the second-tier storage protocol middle.

Privacy Computing Network

The privacy computing network above the blockchain network layer is the most important layer of PlatON. This layer of network includes privacy computing algorithms and data storage protocols. It is an open computing power trading market for AI networks and the future. Applications built on PlatON provide basic data processing capabilities. This layer of network allows users to contribute computing power on the one hand, and on the other hand connects users with data computing needs, performs data calculations for users through the private computing methods provided in the network, and provides incentives for computing power providers through network native tokens.

The private computing network provides off-chain services. This layer of the network mainly includes private ZK-Rollup, Eth-PlatON nodes and public computing power market services. Privacy ZK-Rollup is an expansion plan with privacy attributes. The Eth-PlatON node is a repeater that provides expansion plans for applications on Ethereum. Users can use this node to improve performance with a small amount of Ethereum and LAT token fees. And to reduce the handling fee, the open computing power market is a trading market established for users with computing needs and users who can provide computing power. The demander can publish a computing task, and the task content, cost and other related information are specified in the smart contract. In order to protect the privacy of input data, the demander uses a fully homomorphic encryption scheme to encrypt all inputs and sends the ciphertext to the computing node that takes over the job. The node will complete the calculation task and prove to the contract. If the verification is passed, the token will be sent to the node.

In addition to the aforementioned computing market, PlatON will also release a storage protocol for storing the original data encrypted by the demander, as well as the storage chain status data mentioned above, etc. PlatON hopes to store the storage protocol and copy the certificate Integrate into the protocol itself to improve efficiency.

AI network

Compared with the stronger combination between the first-layer and second-layer networks, the AI ​​network is a relatively independent network. The ultimate goal of this layer of network is to become an autonomous AI network, through the self-derivation of the network to produce high-quality AI algorithms and ultimately empower the private computing network, providing private computing solutions for certain specific areas.

Challenges of PlatON2.0 Layer 3 Network

PlatON’s three-tier network design thoroughly implements the concept of decentralization, and basically forms an internal ecological closed loop. The blockchain layer adopts the PoS consensus mechanism, which guarantees the efficiency requirements of the computing network to a certain extent. The second layer, also the most important privacy computing layer, adopts a more mature zero-knowledge proof mechanism, and also adds a special storage protocol and storage proof mechanism. From the description of the network hierarchy of PlatON 2.0 released this time, it is likely that PlatON’s storage protocol and storage certification will also be realized through independent research and development.

In addition to the basic blockchain and privacy computing protocol layer, PlatON has also added a storage protocol and an AI network. It has basically implemented an overall internal closed loop in its plan. The protocol itself can realize the market transaction and iteration of private computing. At the same time, the expansion capability is improved through the storage protocol, and the possibility of directly providing the overall solution for the demander in the future is expanded through the AI ​​network.

On the whole, the plan outlined by PlatON 2.0 is very ambitious. Once it is finally realized, it will be a huge reservoir that can accommodate countless chain ecology.

But from another perspective, for privacy computing, a field that requires higher efficiency and performance, a completely decentralized way can indeed highlight the role of blockchain in privacy computing, but for now, Efficiency issues can be an important bottleneck. PlatON officials also stated that the current consideration of security is higher than the pursuit of efficiency. After all, in the face of sensitive “assets” such as data, it is indeed necessary to ensure that security is a priority. However, even if there are mature market applications such as zero-knowledge proofs and distributed storage, technology combinations that are inefficient at the current level of technology, coupled with the need for blockchain interaction, can it meet the needs of basic commercialization requirements? We will wait and see.

Blockchain is an important part of private computing

my country’s “Privacy Computing Research Categories and Development Trends” published in 2016 formally proposed the term “privacy computing” and defined privacy computing as: “Computational theories and methods for the full life cycle protection of private information are the ownership of private information , Computable model and axiomatic system for privacy measurement, privacy leakage cost, privacy protection and privacy analysis complexity when management rights are separated from usage rights.”

It can be said that the concept of privacy computing is even more advanced than the blockchain. At present, there are some mature commercial application cases in the blockchain, but privacy computing is still a technology concept that is still under study and not yet mature.
But if it is purely technical, the blockchain is an indispensable part of privacy computing.

Blockchain can guarantee the end-to-end privacy of private computing task data. Through the blockchain encryption algorithm technology, users cannot obtain transaction information in the network. The verification node can only verify the validity of the transaction but cannot obtain specific transaction information, thereby ensuring the privacy of transaction data, and can be based on user, business, transaction object, etc. Different levels of privacy protection settings for data and accounts are implemented to protect data privacy to the greatest extent.

Blockchain can guarantee the security of the entire life cycle of data in private computing. The privacy calculation process is controlled by a smart contract, and the contract data is completely stored in the block, which ensures the security of the data life cycle and will not be tampered with or deleted in the process. In addition, the asymmetric encryption and hash encryption technology used in the blockchain can effectively ensure data security and prevent leakage.

Blockchain can guarantee the traceability of the privacy calculation process. The entire process of data application, authorization, and calculation results is recorded and stored on the chain. The information recorded on the chain can be signed and confirmed by other participants to further improve the credibility of the data and pass the verification of the hash value. Match, realize the fast identification of information tampering. Based on the recording and authentication of data on the chain, smart contracts can be used to associate relevant data on the chain according to a unique identifier to build data traceability.

In general, the combination of blockchain and privacy computing enables collaborative computing and data privacy protection among multiple nodes without the need for collection and sharing of original data. At the same time, it can solve the problems of excessive data collection, data privacy protection, and single point of data storage leakage in the big data model. The blockchain ensures the credibility of the calculation process and data, and the privacy calculation realizes that the data is available but not visible. The two combine with each other and complement each other to achieve a wider range of data collaboration.


The future of private computing

For what most people describe, the application of “privacy computing + blockchain” in fields such as government affairs, finance, etc. may be too far away. For the application prospects of private computing, I am more optimistic that it will be used first in the original field of blockchain. Play a certain role.

When we look back on history, in the last craze of Ethereum, countless projects that claimed to use the blockchain to change the status quo of a certain sub-industry were born. Today, it seems that most of the ones that can really survive have turned to the blockchain. Native realm.

Let’s give two simple examples. Attrace, a decentralized recommendation platform, once inspired to become a universal intermediary platform in traditional industries, but it hasn’t improved, but this year it has become a platform for NFT and IDO recommendation. , And provide rewards for recommenders after the transaction, opening up the flow entrance in the original blockchain field.

Another example is Filecoin. Before the mainnet went live, countless voices said that Filecoin could replace the cloud, but it seems that although it has attracted some low-frequency demand data storage, most of the usage scenarios are still in the original blockchain. For example, as the data layer of many NFT projects, it is used to improve the transaction efficiency of NFTs with a large amount of data.

For PlatON, there are currently many application opportunities in the DeFi field. For example, recommendations for personal investment preferences that may be added in the income aggregator project in the future may involve modeled calculations for personal investment data, so that the amount of data under the same model Small but high-frequency calculations are more suitable for multi-layer privacy computing platforms like PlatON. In addition, at the basic application level, the use of privacy contracts and private transactions to develop private DEXs to achieve complete privacy of the identities and transaction content of the transaction parties under the premise of decentralization is also a direction worth exploring.

In addition, if you have to talk about the integration with traditional industries, I personally think that the first point of integration may be machine learning research in the scientific research field, mainly because the scientific research field’s awareness of the blockchain will be much greater than the commercial field. The token incentive mechanism of the blockchain privacy computing platform is conducive to improving the supply-side quality of computing power and reducing costs. The exploration in the business field is not only limited by technical bottlenecks, but also due to the unclear direction of the current privacy protection legislation and supervision. In the absence of clear regulations, platforms with large amounts of data will not easily accept it. Data privacy.

Reference documents:

PlatON 2.0 introduces Twitter:

PlatON 2.0 PPT

The full text of the privacy computing white paper (6 parts):
PlatON Privacy-Preserving Computation White Paper | Part 1. Overall Framework

PlatON Privacy-Preserving Computation White Paper | Part 2. Algorithms

PlatON Privacy-Preserving Computation White Paper | Part 3. On-Chain Capabilities

PlatON Privacy-Preserving Computation White Paper | Part 4. Off-Chain Services

PlatON Privacy-Preserving Computation WhitePaper | Part 5 Applications

PlatON Privacy-Preserving Computation White Paper | Part 6

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